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ABBREVIATIONS
A Century Ago in Whitaker's
EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1918–19
The following constitutes selected extracts from the Events of the Year chapter as recorded in the 1919 and 1920 editions of Whitaker's Almanack, published a century ago. The text has been reproduced in its original form, along with its idiosyncrasies of style and archaic spellings of names. The information in parentheses following the date is the name of the sub-section the extract was taken from.
AUGUST 1918
4. (The King and Court) Their Majesties, with both Houses of Parliament, attended St. Margaret's, Westminster, at the Special Service of Thanksgiving and Intercession on the fourth anniversary of the war. 5. (Diary of the War) Five German airships over the East Anglian coast: no bombs dropped. 7. (Imperial Dominions) Mr. Lloyd George’s “Hold fast!” message published in over 100 newspapers throughout Australia. 13. (Diary of the War) Return of King George to England after a nine days’ visit to the front. 18. (Labour) Strike of London women tramway and omnibus workers to enforce their demands for the same bonus as that given to the men.
SEPTEMBER 1918
1. (Diary of the War) Enemy in retreat on almost his whole front from S. of Ypres to Soissons, except between La Bassée and Lens. 7. (Other Countries) Hsu Shi-Chang elected President of the Chinese Republic by a large majority. 12. (Diary of the War) Union Castle liner Galway Castle, with over 1,000 on board, including many women and children, torpedoed without warning: 154 passengers and crew missing. 24 (United States) House of Representatives approved the measure making national prohibition effective from on July 1, 1919: measure already passed the Senate.
OCTOBER 1918
1. (Diary of the War) Resignation of Count Hertling, German Imperial Chancellor, and all German secretaries, announced. 7. (Ecclesiastical) Dr. Yeatman-Biggs, Bishop of Worcester, to be first Bishop of Coventry. 8. (United States) Full text of Pres. Wilson’s reply to the German Peace Note published. 11. (Other Countries) Earthquake in San Juan de Puerto Rico: 150 killed. 23. (Diary of the War) The House of Commons, voting on non-party lines, by 274 votes to 25 affirmed that a Bill should be passed forth with that women should be eligible as M.P.’s. 25. (Drama and Music) Centenary of the “Old Vic.” celebrated by a matinée at which the Queen was present. 28 (Diary of the War). Conference, at Versailles, of Allied Chiefs. 29. (Art) “The Triumph of the Innocents,” by Holman Hunt, presented to the nation by Mr. J. T. Middlemore, M. P. 30. (Diary of the War) Czecho-Slovak State proclaimed at Prague: independence of Croatia and all the Southern Slav territories proclaimed in Agram Diet. Surrender of Turkish army on the Tigris.
NOVEMBER 1918
9. (Diary of the War) “Abdication” of the Kaiser announced. Revolution in Berlin: flight of King of Bavaria: Bavaria, Württemburg, Saxony, the Mecklenburgs, Brunswick, Hesse, and other countries reported to be suppressing their Governments. Mr. Lloyd George; at the Lord Mayor’s banquet, announced the abdication of the Kaiser, and said “Germany’s doom was sealed.” Flight of the Kaiser to Holland. 11. (Diary of the War) Mons entered at dawn by Canadians. Armistice signed by German plenipotentiaries. 11 A.M. firing ceased on all fronts. Messages of congratulation and appreciation sent by the King to the Navy, Army, and Air Force. Scenes of great rejoicing in London and the provinces. 11. (The King and Court) Their majesties were enthusiastically greeted by enormous crowds outside Buckingham Palace on Armistice Day. 14. (Imperial Politics) Mr. Bonar Law stated that the Prime Minister had advised the King to dissolve Parliament and that a general election would be held.
DECEMBER 1918
14. (Imperial Politics) Polling took place throughout the United Kingdom for the election of 584 members, women exercising the franchise for the first time. 28. (Imperial Politics) Votes were counted after interval to allow soldiers to send their votes by post. Result (including unopposed returns) Coalition 478 (U. 334, L. 133, Lab. 11), Labour 63, Unionists 48, Liberals 28, Independents 10, Sinn Feiners 73, Nationalists 7.
JANUARY 1919
1. (Accidents) Naval steam yacht Iolaire, with 300 seamen on leave, wrecked outside Stornoway Harbour with loss of 174 lives. 6. (United States) Mr. Roosevelt died in his sleep at Oyster Bay. King George, Queen Alexandra, Mr. Lloyd George and Mr. Wilson sent messages of condolence to Mrs. Roosevelt. 9. (Imperial Dominions) Largest strike in India began at Bombay, 100,000 mill hands demanding an increased bonus. 9. (Other Countries) General Strike at Buenos Ayres followed by severe street fighting. 18. (The King and Court) Prince John died at Sandringham. 23. (Labour) Coal Controller conceded 20 minutes "dead stop" for meals to Yorkshire miners and settled strike involving 150,000 men and boys.
FEBRUARY 1919
1. (Imperial Dominions) Bombay cotton strike ended. 3. (Labour) Surprise strike of motormen on London Tube railways, men demanding meal time in 8 hour day. 8. (Aviation) Giant Farman aeroplane for service between Paris and London flew to London in 3¼ hours with 14 on board. 9. (Labour) Traffic resumed on London Tubes, men's unions securing new temporary agreements governing working hours. 18. (Imperial Dominions) Renewed strikes in Bombay, involving some 15,000 workers.
MARCH 1919
1. (Imperial Dominions) Government report on influenza epidemic in India issued showing 6,000,000 deaths. 17. (Art) Whistler's painting "La Princesse du Pays de la Porcelaine" sold for £10,000 in New York. 28. (Sport) Grand National won by Mrs. Hugh Peel's Poethlyn.
APRIL 1919
7. (Crimes) Raoul Reginald de Veulle acquitted at Central Criminal Court of charge of manslaughter of Billie Carleton, but sentenced to eight month's imprisonment in second division for conspiring with another to procure cocaine. 14. (Imperial Dominions) Grave riots in various places in India. Troops fired on mob and order was restored in most centres within few days. 22. (United States) Marriage of Mr. Carnegie's daughter to Ensign Miller at New York.
MAY 1919
1. (Labour) Prime Minister announced that Government accepted in principle proposals for 48-hour week and minimum rates of wages for all trades. 8. (Imperial Dominions) India Office announced armed bodies of Afghans had crossed Indian frontier at several points near Khyber Pass. 12. (Drama and Music) Royal Opera House opened for the first time since outbreak of war, King and Queen and Queen Alexandra being present at performance of La Bohéme with Melba and Thomas Burke. 16. (Imperial Dominions) Afghans attacked British forces at Dakka but were beaten off, and later were driven out of their positions. 27. (Aviation) NC4 arrived at Lisbon, thus completing the first crossing of the Atlantic by air.
JUNE 1919
2. (Imperial Dominions) Viceroy announced receipt of message from Amir asking for honourable peace, and saying he had ordered cessation of fighting. 3. (Imperial Politics) The Speaker's place in the scale of precedence was appreciably advanced. 14. (Aviation) Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Whitten Brown left St. John's Newfoundland, in their Vickers-Vimy-Rolls Royce, and landed in fog at Clifden, County Galway, on the following morning, thus crossing the Atlantic direct in 16 hours 12 mins., and winning the £10,000 prize offered by the Daily Mail. 21. (Imperial Politics) Mr. G. H. Roberts announced that the control of food would continue through the coming winter.
JULY 1919
1. (United States) Prohibition came into force. 2. (Aviation) The British Airship R34 (Major G. H. Scott) left East Fortune for her double trip across the Atlantic. 6. With her fuel nearly expended the R34 landed safely at her destination at Mineola, Long Island, having flown 3,130 sea miles in just over 108 hours. 9. Return journey was started. 13. She landed at Pulham, Norfolk, after flight of 73 hours 3 mins.